From Dr. Christina D. Spink

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This work is dedicated to the glory of God
and to my parents
Harry and Mary

I would like to thank the chair of the dissertation committee, Dr. Antonia D'Onofrio, whose vision and resourcefulness made this work possible. I am also indebted to Dr. William Cutler, history professor at Temple University and Dr. Barbara Norton, history and women's studies professor at Widener University, for sharing their expertise in this joint university and cross-disciplines endeavor. I am grateful as well to Dr. Shelley Welpner and Dr. Edward Rozycki for their willingness to be readers and examiners of this dissertation. I would also like to acknowledge the late Dr. Harvey Conn of Westminster Theological Seminary who guided me in my research of the China Inland Mission and introduced me to the world of adult missionary kids.
My research could not have been completed without access to the following archive centers, of which I am most appreciative for the use of their resources and the help of the archivists: The China Inland Mission archives at the Billy Graham Center,
Wheaton, director Robert Shuster; The Chefoo School Association archives at the Overseas Missionary Fellowship house in Toronto; The Asian internment camp reports of the National Archives, archivist Mitch Yarkelson; The Oxford Delegacy of Local Examinations, Ewert House, Summertown, Oxford, archivist Ian Hollingworth; and, The China Inland Mission archives at the School of Oriental and African Studies Library, archivist Rosemary Seton.
Finally, this dissertation could not have been attempted without the cooperation of the late David Michell whose own story and relationship with the Chefusians made my research possible. To Kathleen Foster and Mary Previte for willingly sharing their stories. To Norman Cliff for his knowledge and generosity of resources. To the Chefoo students and Weihsien internees who were interviewed. And thank you to David McCasland, Ruth Van Reken and my editing friends for their advice and encouragement.

This study explores how two students interpreted the implicit moral aspects of schooling during a time of duress. Two questions arise from this investigation. How was schooling co-constructed by the staff and students to preserve the curriculum's moral component while living in a culture created by military rule? And, how do the students perceive the influence of this unique schooling experience upon their lives? This case study is an interpretation of how a specific group of students and teachers co-constructed schooling to preserve the moral underpinnings of their curriculum from external threats. The intent of this work is to provide insight as to how students interpret and internalize the implicit and explicit moral components of a school's curriculum.
The setting for this study is occupied China during World War II when the China Inland Mission Schools, colloquially known as Chefoo, were placed under Japanese occupation forces and then interned as a school body, along with 1,000 other Westerners, in the Weihsien Civilian Assembly Center. These events of war separated the students from their parents for over five years and created a dependency upon the school staff for their academic, spiritual and emotional needs.
From the 24 interviews of Chefoo students, two women were selected for more in- depth oral histories. A descriptive case study was used to analyze the women's stories so as to present a recollected account of their schooling experiences as students. The interviews were structured around the themes of schooling and separation and then divided further into sub-themes grounded in the research. The oral histories were also triangulated with historical documents and interviews with other classmates. The term co- construction means that it is the interactions between the teacher and the student, that ultimately decides what the student culturally, morally and academically retains.

Prologue: Nature of the Problem ------------------------------ 12
1_ Introduction
2. Background of the Problem
3. What is Schooling?
4. Summary
Chapter One: The Historical Context -------------------------- 19
1. Introduction
2. The Historically Documented Context
3. Issues of Personal Reality and Official History
4. Summary
Chapter Two: The Oral Histories -------------------------------41
1. Introduction
2. Oral History Concerns
3. Constant Comparative Method
4. Development of Themes
5. Mary Taylor Previte: A Biography
6. Kathleen Strange Foster: An Oral History -------------------64
7. Summary
Chapter Three: Conclusions --------------------------------------80
1. Introduction
2. Validity of the Creative Argument
3. Separation
4. Schooling
5. The Co-construction of Curriculum and its Moral Component
6. Universal Theme of Social Control
7. .Lessons Learned about Historical Inquiry
8. Summary
Epilogue ----------------------------------------------------------106
1. Introduction
2. Significance to Education
3. Where Do We Go From Here
4. Conclusion
Bibliography ------------------------------------------------------115
Appendix A: Definition of Terms ---------------------------------119
Appendix B: Expanded Historical Context ------------------------122
1. Japanese Presence in China
2. Formation of Weihsien Internment Camp
3. Internment Camps in China
4. Education at Weihsien
5. Clandestine Activities
6. Summary
Appendix C: Methodology -----------------------------------------131
1. Introduction
2. A Descriptive Case Study
3. Research Design
4. Selection of Cases
5. Analytic Strategies
6. Coding Procedure
7. Validity and Reliability Issues
8. Internal Validity
9. Reliability
10. External Validity Concerns
11. Summary

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